After sharing her room with Pfeffer, she found him to be insufferable and resented his intrusion,  and she clashed with Auguste van Pels, whom she regarded as foolish. She regarded Hermann van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer as selfish, particularly in regard to the amount of food they consumed. She received her first kiss from him, but her infatuation with him began to wane as she questioned whether her feelings for him were genuine, or resulted from their shared confinement.
He observed that Anne's closest friendship was with Bep Voskuijl, "the young typist In her writing, Frank examined her relationships with the members of her family, and the strong differences in each of their personalities. She considered herself to be closest emotionally to her father, who later commented, "I got on better with Anne than with Margot, who was more attached to her mother. The reason for that may have been that Margot rarely showed her feelings and didn't need as much support because she didn't suffer from mood swings as much as Anne did.
As Anne began to mature, the sisters were able to confide in each other. In her entry of 12 January , Frank wrote, "Margot's much nicer She's not nearly so catty these days and is becoming a real friend. She no longer thinks of me as a little baby who doesn't count.
Frank frequently wrote of her difficult relationship with her mother, and of her ambivalence towards her. On 7 November she described her "contempt" for her mother and her inability to "confront her with her carelessness, her sarcasm and her hard-heartedness," before concluding, "She's not a mother to me. With this realization, Frank began to treat her mother with a degree of tolerance and respect. The Frank sisters each hoped to return to school as soon as they were able, and continued with their studies while in hiding.
Margot took a shorthand course by correspondence in Bep Voskuijl's name and received high marks. Most of Anne's time was spent reading and studying, and she regularly wrote and edited her diary entries. In addition to providing a narrative of events as they occurred, she wrote about her feelings, beliefs, and ambitions, subjects she felt she could not discuss with anyone.
As her confidence in her writing grew, and as she began to mature, she wrote of more abstract subjects such as her belief in God, and how she defined human nature. I finally realized that I must do my schoolwork to keep from being ignorant, to get on in life, to become a journalist, because that's what I want! I know I can write And if I don't have the talent to write books or newspaper articles, I can always write for myself. But I want to achieve more than that. I can't imagine living like Mother, Mrs.
I need to have something besides a husband and children to devote myself to! I want to be useful or bring enjoyment to all people, even those I've never met. I want to go on living even after my death! And that's why I'm so grateful to God for having given me this gift, which I can use to develop myself and to express all that's inside me! When I write I can shake off all my cares.
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My sorrow disappears, my spirits are revived! But, and that's a big question, will I ever be able to write something great, will I ever become a journalist or a writer? On 5 August they were transferred to the Huis van Bewaring House of Detention , an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans. Two days later they were transported to the Westerbork transit camp , through which by that time more than , Jews, mostly Dutch and German, had passed.
Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labour. Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were arrested and jailed at the penal camp for enemies of the regime at Amersfoort. Kleiman was released after seven weeks, but Kugler was held in various work camps until the war's end. They returned to the Achterhuis the following day, and found Anne's papers strewn on the floor.
They collected them, as well as several family photograph albums, and Gies resolved to return them to Anne after the war. On 7 August , Gies attempted to facilitate the release of the prisoners by confronting Silberbauer and offering him money to intervene, but he refused. Although there have been persistent claims of betrayal by an informant, the source of the information that led the authorities to raid the Achterhuis has never been identified. Night watchman Martin Sleegers and an unidentified police officer investigated a burglary at the premises in April and came across the bookcase concealing the secret door.
Another suspect is stockroom manager Willem van Maaren. The Annex occupants did not trust him, as he seemed inquisitive regarding people entering the stockroom after hours. He once unexpectedly asked the employees whether there had previously been a Mr. Frank at the office.
Several of these suspects knew one another and might have worked in collaboration. While virtually everyone connected with the betrayal was interrogated after the war, no one was definitively identified as being the informant. Johannes was the one who constructed the bookcase covering the entrance to the hiding place. In , the Anne Frank House published new research pointing to investigation over ration card fraud, rather than betrayal, as a plausible explanation for the raid that led to the arrest of the Franks.
However, it does not rule out betrayal. On 3 September , [a] the group was deported on what would be the last transport from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp and arrived after a three-day journey. Upon arrival at Auschwitz, the SS forcibly separated the men from the women and children, and Otto Frank was wrenched from his family.
Those deemed able to work were admitted into the camp, and those deemed unfit for labour were immediately killed. Of the 1, passengers, —including all children younger than 15—were sent directly to the gas chambers. Anne Frank, who had turned 15 three months earlier, was one of the youngest people spared from her transport. She was soon made aware that most people were gassed upon arrival and never learned that the entire group from the Achterhuis had survived this selection. She reasoned that her father, in his mid-fifties and not particularly robust, had been killed immediately after they were separated.
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With the other women and girls not selected for immediate death, Frank was forced to strip naked to be disinfected, had her head shaved, and was tattooed with an identifying number on her arm. By day, the women were used as slave labour and Frank was forced to haul rocks and dig rolls of sod; by night, they were crammed into overcrowded barracks.
Some witnesses later testified Frank became withdrawn and tearful when she saw children being led to the gas chambers; others reported that more often she displayed strength and courage. Her gregarious and confident nature allowed her to obtain extra bread rations for her mother, sister, and herself.
bring back some good or bad memories
Disease was rampant; before long, Frank's skin became badly infected by scabies. The Frank sisters were moved into an infirmary, which was in a state of constant darkness and infested with rats and mice. Edith Frank stopped eating, saving every morsel of food for her daughters and passing her rations to them through a hole she made at the bottom of the infirmary wall.
In October , the Frank women were scheduled to join a transport to the Liebau labour camp in Upper Silesia.
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Bloeme Evers-Emden was scheduled to be on this transport, but Anne was prohibited from going because she had developed scabies, and her mother and sister opted to stay with her. Bloeme went on without them. On 28 October, selections began for women to be relocated to Bergen-Belsen. Edith Frank was left behind and died from starvation. Frank was briefly reunited with two friends, Hanneli Goslar and Nanette Blitz , who were confined in another section of the camp. Goslar and Blitz survived the war, and discussed the brief conversations they had conducted with Frank through a fence.
Blitz described Anne as bald, emaciated, and shivering. Neither of them saw Margot, as she was too weak to leave her bunk. Anne told Blitz and Goslar she believed her parents were dead, and for that reason she did not wish to live any longer. Goslar later estimated their meetings had taken place in late January or early February In early , a typhus epidemic spread through the camp, killing 17, prisoners. However, there is evidence that she died from the epidemic. Three hundred?
Witnesses later testified Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock. Anne died a few days after Margot. The exact dates of Margot's and Anne's deaths were not recorded. It was long thought that their deaths occurred only a few weeks before British soldiers liberated the camp on 15 April ,  but research in indicated that they may have died as early as February.
After the war, it was estimated that only 5, of the , Jews deported from the Netherlands between and survived. An estimated 30, Jews remained in the Netherlands, with many people aided by the Dutch underground.
Approximately two-thirds of this group survived the war. Otto Frank survived his internment in Auschwitz. After the war ended, he returned to Amsterdam, where he was sheltered by Jan and Miep Gies as he attempted to locate his family. He learned of the death of his wife, Edith, in Auschwitz, but remained hopeful that his daughters had survived.
After several weeks, he discovered Margot and Anne had also died.
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